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The Lancet, Volume 380, Issue 9859, Pages 2197 - 2223, 15 December 2012
doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61689-4Cite or Link Using DOI
This article can be found in the following collections: Global Health; Public Health

Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 291 diseases and injuries in 21 regions, 1990—2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010

Prof Christopher J L Murray MD f Corresponding AuthorEmail Address, Prof Theo Vos PhD b, Prof Rafael Lozano MD f, Mohsen Naghavi PhD f, Abraham D Flaxman PhD f, Catherine Michaud MD j, Prof Majid Ezzati PhD k, Prof Kenji Shibuya MD m, Prof Joshua A Salomon PhD p, Safa Abdalla MBBS v *, Prof Victor Aboyans MD w *, Jerry Abraham MPH x *, Ilana Ackerman PhD ac *, Prof Rakesh Aggarwal MD ad *, Stephanie Y Ahn MPH f *, Mohammed K Ali MBChB af *, Miriam Alvarado BA f *, Prof H Ross Anderson MD ag *, Laurie M Anderson PhD g *, Kathryn G Andrews MPH f *, Charles Atkinson BS f *, Prof Larry M Baddour MD ah *, Adil N Bahalim MEng ai *, Suzanne Barker-Collo PhD aj *, Lope H Barrero ScD ak *, David H Bartels BA u *, Prof Maria-Gloria Basáñez PhD l *, Amanda Baxter MPH a *, Prof Michelle L Bell PhD am *, Prof Emelia J Benjamin MD ao *, Derrick Bennett PhD ap *, Eduardo Bernabé PhD ar *, Kavi Bhalla PhD u *, Bishal Bhandari MSc av *, Boris Bikbov MD aw *, Aref Bin Abdulhak MD ax *, Prof Gretchen Birbeck MD ay *, James A Black MPhil az *, Hannah Blencowe MBChB ba *, Jed D Blore PhD b *, Fiona Blyth PhD bf *, Ian Bolliger AB f *, Audrey Bonaventure MD bg *, Soufiane Boufous PhD bh *, Prof Rupert Bourne MD bk *, Michel Boussinesq MD bl *, Tasanee Braithwaite BMBCh bm *, Prof Carol Brayne MD bn *, Lisa Bridgett PhD bf *, Prof Simon Brooker DPhil ba *, Prof Peter Brooks MD ac *, Prof Traolach S Brugha MD bo *, Claire Bryan-Hancock BPsych bp *, Chiara Bucello BPsyc bj *, Prof Rachelle Buchbinder MBBS bs bq *, Geoffrey Buckle MPH bt *, Christine M Budke PhD bv *, Michael Burch MD bw *, Prof Peter Burney MD l *, Roy Burstein BA f *, Bianca Calabria BPsych bi *, Benjamin Campbell BA f *, Prof Charles E Canter MD bx *, Prof Hélène Carabin PhD by *, Prof Jonathan Carapetis MBBS bz *, Loreto Carmona MD cb *, Claudia Cella PharmChemD cc *, Fiona Charlson MPH b *, Honglei Chen PhD cd *, Prof Andrew Tai-Ann Cheng MD ce *, David Chou BA f *, Prof Sumeet S Chugh MD cg *, Luc E Coffeng MD ci *, Prof Steven D Colan MD s *, Samantha Colquhoun MPH cj *, K Ellicott Colson BA f *, John Condon PhD cj *, Myles D Connor PhD ck cl cm *, Prof Leslie T Cooper MD cn *, Matthew Corriere MD co *, Monica Cortinovis BiotechD cc *, Karen Courville de Vaccaro MD cp *, Prof William Couser MD i *, Benjamin C Cowie MBBS cq *, Prof Michael H Criqui MD cr *, Marita Cross PhD bf *, Kaustubh C Dabhadkar MBBS af *, Manu Dahiya BDS au *, Nabila Dahodwala MD cs *, James Damsere-Derry MPH ct *, Goodarz Danaei MD p *, Prof Adrian Davis PhD cu *, Prof Diego De Leo DSc cx *, Prof Louisa Degenhardt PhD aa bi *, Robert Dellavalle MD cy *, Allyne Delossantos BS f *, Julie Denenberg MA cr *, Sarah Derrett PhD cz *, Don C Des Jarlais PhD da *, Prof Samath D Dharmaratne MBBS f db *, Mukesh Dherani PhD dc *, Cesar Diaz-Torne MD dd *, Prof Helen Dolk DrPH de *, E Ray Dorsey MD bu *, Tim Driscoll PhD be *, Herbert Duber MD i *, Beth Ebel MD i *, Karen Edmond PhD ba *, Alexis Elbaz MD bg *, Suad Eltahir Ali Mcs df *, Holly Erskine BPsySc a *, Patricia J Erwin MLS ah *, Patricia Espindola MD dg *, Stalin E Ewoigbokhan MPH dh *, Farshad Farzadfar MD dj *, Prof Valery Feigin MD dk *, Prof David T Felson MD an *, Alize Ferrari BPsySc a *, Cleusa P Ferri PhD dn *, Eric M Fèvre PhD cl *, Mariel M Finucane PhD o *, Seth Flaxman BA do *, Louise Flood MBBS bp *, Kyle Foreman MPH l *, Mohammad H Forouzanfar MD f *, Prof Francis Gerry R Fowkes FRCPE cl *, Marlene Fransen PhD bc *, Michael K Freeman BA f *, Belinda J Gabbe PhD br *, Prof Sherine E Gabriel MD ah *, Emmanuela Gakidou PhD f *, Hammad A Ganatra MBBS af *, Bianca Garcia MPH e *, Flavio Gaspari ChemD cc *, Prof Richard F Gillum MD dq *, Prof Gerhard Gmel PhD dr *, Diego Gonzalez-Medina BA f *, Prof Richard Gosselin MD dt *, Rebecca Grainger PhD cz *, Bridget Grant PhD hq *, Justina Groeger MPH du *, Prof Francis Guillemin MD dx *, Prof David Gunnell DSc dy *, Ramyani Gupta MSc ag *, Juanita Haagsma PhD ci *, Prof Holly Hagan PhD dz *, Yara A Halasa DDS ea *, Prof Wayne Hall PhD e *, Diana Haring BS f *, Josep Maria Haro MD eb *, Prof James E Harrison MBBS bp *, Rasmus Havmoeller MD cf ec *, Prof Roderick J Hay DM as *, Hideki Higashi PhD b *, Catherine Hill MBBS ed *, Prof Bruno Hoen MD ee ef *, Howard Hoffman MA eg *, Peter J Hotez MD ei *, Damian Hoy PhD bs *, John J Huang MD am *, Sydney E Ibeanusi MBBS ej *, Kathryn H Jacobsen PhD ek *, Spencer L James MPH f *, Deborah Jarvis FFPH l *, Rashmi Jasrasaria BA f *, Sudha Jayaraman MD t *, Nicole Johns BA f *, Prof Jost B Jonas MD el *, Ganesan Karthikeyan MD em *, Nicholas Kassebaum MD h *, Prof Norito Kawakami MD n *, Prof Andre Keren MD en *, Jon-Paul Khoo MBBS a *, Prof Charles H King MD eo *, Lisa Marie Knowlton MD r *, Olive Kobusingye MMed ep eq *, Adofo Koranteng MSc er *, Rita Krishnamurthi PhD dl *, Francine Laden ScD p *, Prof Ratilal Lalloo PhD cv cw *, Laura L Laslett MMedSci es *, Tim Lathlean MA bp *, Janet L Leasher OD et *, Yong Yi Lee MHEcon b *, James Leigh MBBS be *, Daphna Levinson PhD eu *, Stephen S Lim PhD f *, Elizabeth Limb MSc ag *, John Kent Lin AB p *, Michael Lipnick MD dt *, Prof Steven E Lipshultz MD ev *, Wei Liu MD q *, Maria Loane MSc de *, Summer Lockett Ohno BA f *, Prof Ronan Lyons MD ew *, Jacqueline Mabweijano MMed ex *, Michael F MacIntyre EdM f *, Prof Reza Malekzadeh MD di *, Leslie Mallinger MPH f *, Sivabalan Manivannan ScM bt *, Prof Wagner Marcenes PhD av *, Prof Lyn March MD bd *, Prof David J Margolis MD cs *, Prof Guy B Marks PhD bf *, Prof Robin Marks MBBS ac *, Akira Matsumori MD ey *, Richard Matzopoulos MPhil ez fc *, Prof Bongani M Mayosi DPhil fc *, John H McAnulty MD fd *, Prof Mary M McDermott MD fe *, Neil McGill FRACP bf *, Prof John McGrath MD d *, Maria Elena Medina-Mora PhD ff *, Michele Meltzer MD fg *, Prof George A Mensah MD fb *, Tony R Merriman PhD cz *, Ana-Claire Meyer MD dt *, Valeria Miglioli cc *, Matthew Miller MD p *, Ted R Miller PhD fh *, Prof Philip B Mitchell MD bj *, Prof Charles Mock MD i *, Prof Ana Olga Mocumbi MD fi fj *, Prof Terrie E Moffitt MD fk *, Ali A Mokdad MD f *, Lorenzo Monasta DSc fl *, Marcella Montico Msc fl *, Maziar Moradi-Lakeh MD dj *, Andrew Moran MD fn *, Prof Lidia Morawska PhD fo *, Rintaro Mori MD fp *, Michele E Murdoch FRCP fq *, Michael K Mwaniki MBChB fr *, Prof Kovin Naidoo PhD fs *, M Nathan Nair MD f *, Luigi Naldi MD ft *, K M Venkat Narayan MD af *, Paul K Nelson MHSc bi *, Robert G Nelson MD eh *, Michael C Nevitt PhD ds *, Prof Charles R Newton MD aq *, Sandra Nolte PhD fu *, Prof Paul Norman MD ca *, Rosana Norman PhD b *, Martin O'Donnell PhD fv *, Simon O'Hanlon MSc l *, Casey Olives PhD i *, Saad B Omer MBBS ae *, Katrina Ortblad BA f *, Prof Richard Osborne PhD fw *, Doruk Ozgediz MD al *, Andrew Page PhD b *, Bishnu Pahari MD fx *, Jeyaraj Durai Pandian MD fy *, Andrea Panozo Rivero MD fz *, Prof Scott B Patten MD ga *, Prof Neil Pearce PhD ba *, Rogelio Perez Padilla MD gb *, Fernando Perez-Ruiz MD gc *, Norberto Perico MD cc *, Prof Konrad Pesudovs PhD bp *, David Phillips BS f *, Prof Michael R Phillips MD gd *, Kelsey Pierce BA f *, Sébastien Pion PhD bl *, Guilherme V Polanczyk MD dm *, Suzanne Polinder PhD ch *, Prof C Arden Pope PhD gf *, Svetlana Popova MD gg *, Esteban Porrini MD gh *, Farshad Pourmalek MD gi *, Prof Martin Prince MD at *, Rachel L Pullan PhD ba *, Kapa D Ramaiah PhD gj *, Dharani Ranganathan BS f *, Homie Razavi PhD gk *, Mathilda Regan MPH gl *, Prof Jürgen T Rehm PhD gg *, David B Rein PhD gm *, Prof Guiseppe Remuzzi MD cc *, Kathryn Richardson MSc bn *, Prof Frederick P Rivara MD i *, Thomas Roberts BA f *, Carolyn Robinson BS dt *, Felipe Rodriguez De Leòn MD gn *, Luca Ronfani PhD fl *, Prof Robin Room PhD ab go *, Lisa C Rosenfeld MPH f *, Lesley Rushton PhD l *, Prof Ralph L Sacco MD ev *, Sukanta Saha PhD a *, Prof Uchechukwu Sampson MD gp *, Lidia Sanchez-Riera MD bd *, Ella Sanman BS f *, Prof David C Schwebel PhD gq *, James Graham Scott PhD c *, Maria Segui-Gomez MD gr *, Saeid Shahraz MD ea *, Prof Donald S Shepard PhD ea *, Hwashin Shin PhD gs *, Rupak Shivakoti BA bu *, David Singh MD gt *, Gitanjali M Singh PhD p *, Jasvinder A Singh MBBS gq *, Jessica Singleton MIPH bi *, David A Sleet PhD dv *, Prof Karen Sliwa MD fa *, Emma Smith PhD bb *, Jennifer L Smith MSc ba *, Nicolas JC Stapelberg MBBS cx *, Andrew Steer MBBS y *, Prof Timothy Steiner PhD gv *, Wilma A Stolk PhD ci *, Prof Lars Jacob Stovner PhD gu *, Christopher Sudfeld ScM p *, Sana Syed MBBS gw *, Giorgio Tamburlini PhD fl *, Mohammad Tavakkoli MD p *, Prof Hugh R Taylor MD ac *, Jennifer A Taylor PhD gx *, William J Taylor PhD cz *, Bernadette Thomas MD i *, Prof W Murray Thomson PhD cz *, Prof George D Thurston ScD dz *, Imad M Tleyjeh MD ax *, Prof Marcello Tonelli MD gy *, Prof Jeffrey A Towbin MD ha *, Thomas Truelsen MD hb *, Prof Miltiadis K Tsilimbaris MD hc *, Clotilde Ubeda MD hd *, Eduardo A Undurraga PhD ea *, Marieke J van der Werf PhD he *, Prof Jim van Os PhD hf *, Prof Monica S Vavilala MD i *, N Venketasubramanian FRCP hg *, Mengru Wang MPH f *, Prof Wenzhi Wang MD hh *, Kerrianne Watt PhD dp *, David J Weatherall MD aq *, Prof Martin A Weinstock MD hi *, Robert Weintraub MBBS z hj *, Marc G Weisskopf PhD p *, Prof Myrna M Weissman PhD fm *, Richard A White MA p *, Prof Harvey Whiteford MBBS a *, Natasha Wiebe BMath gz *, Steven T Wiersma MD dw *, Prof James D Wilkinson MD ev *, Prof Hywel C Williams PhD hk *, Sean RM Williams MBBS hl *, Emma Witt MSc dl *, Frederick Wolfe MD hm *, Prof Anthony D Woolf MBBS hn *, Sarah Wulf MPH f *, Pon-Hsiu Yeh MS ho *, Anita KM Zaidi MBBS gw *, Prof Zhi-Jie Zheng ge *, David Zonies MD hp *, Prof Alan D Lopez PhD b

Summary

Background

Measuring disease and injury burden in populations requires a composite metric that captures both premature mortality and the prevalence and severity of ill-health. The 1990 Global Burden of Disease study proposed disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) to measure disease burden. No comprehensive update of disease burden worldwide incorporating a systematic reassessment of disease and injury-specific epidemiology has been done since the 1990 study. We aimed to calculate disease burden worldwide and for 21 regions for 1990, 2005, and 2010 with methods to enable meaningful comparisons over time.

Methods

We calculated DALYs as the sum of years of life lost (YLLs) and years lived with disability (YLDs). DALYs were calculated for 291 causes, 20 age groups, both sexes, and for 187 countries, and aggregated to regional and global estimates of disease burden for three points in time with strictly comparable definitions and methods. YLLs were calculated from age-sex-country-time-specific estimates of mortality by cause, with death by standardised lost life expectancy at each age. YLDs were calculated as prevalence of 1160 disabling sequelae, by age, sex, and cause, and weighted by new disability weights for each health state. Neither YLLs nor YLDs were age-weighted or discounted. Uncertainty around cause-specific DALYs was calculated incorporating uncertainty in levels of all-cause mortality, cause-specific mortality, prevalence, and disability weights.

Findings

Global DALYs remained stable from 1990 (2·503 billion) to 2010 (2·490 billion). Crude DALYs per 1000 decreased by 23% (472 per 1000 to 361 per 1000). An important shift has occurred in DALY composition with the contribution of deaths and disability among children (younger than 5 years of age) declining from 41% of global DALYs in 1990 to 25% in 2010. YLLs typically account for about half of disease burden in more developed regions (high-income Asia Pacific, western Europe, high-income North America, and Australasia), rising to over 80% of DALYs in sub-Saharan Africa. In 1990, 47% of DALYs worldwide were from communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disorders, 43% from non-communicable diseases, and 10% from injuries. By 2010, this had shifted to 35%, 54%, and 11%, respectively. Ischaemic heart disease was the leading cause of DALYs worldwide in 2010 (up from fourth rank in 1990, increasing by 29%), followed by lower respiratory infections (top rank in 1990; 44% decline in DALYs), stroke (fifth in 1990; 19% increase), diarrhoeal diseases (second in 1990; 51% decrease), and HIV/AIDS (33rd in 1990; 351% increase). Major depressive disorder increased from 15th to 11th rank (37% increase) and road injury from 12th to 10th rank (34% increase). Substantial heterogeneity exists in rankings of leading causes of disease burden among regions.

Interpretation

Global disease burden has continued to shift away from communicable to non-communicable diseases and from premature death to years lived with disability. In sub-Saharan Africa, however, many communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disorders remain the dominant causes of disease burden. The rising burden from mental and behavioural disorders, musculoskeletal disorders, and diabetes will impose new challenges on health systems. Regional heterogeneity highlights the importance of understanding local burden of disease and setting goals and targets for the post-2015 agenda taking such patterns into account. Because of improved definitions, methods, and data, these results for 1990 and 2010 supersede all previously published Global Burden of Disease results.

Funding

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
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a Queensland Centre for Mental Health Research, Brisbane, QLD, Australia
b School of Population Health, Brisbane, QLD, Australia
c Centre for Clinical Research, Brisbane, QLD, Australia
d Queensland Brain Institute, Brisbane, QLD, Australia
e University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia
f Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, Seattle, WA, USA
g Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Seattle, WA, USA
h Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA
i University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
j China Medical Board, Boston, MA, USA
k MRC-HPA Centre for Environment and Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, London, UK
l Imperial College London, London, UK
m Department of Global Health Policy, Tokyo, Japan
n University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
o Department of Biostatistics, Boston, MA, USA
p School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
q Department of Epidemiology, Boston, MA, USA
r Harvard Humanitarian Initiative, Boston, MA, USA
s Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
t Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
u Harvard Medical School, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA
v Sudanese Public Health Consultancy Group, Sudan
w Department of Cardiology, Dupuytren University Hospital, Limoges, France
x University of Texas, San Antonio, TX, USA
y Centre for International Child Health, Melbourne, VIC, Australia
z Department of Pediatrics, Melbourne, VIC, Australia
aa Centre for Health Policy, Programs and Economics, Melbourne, VIC, Australia
ab School of Population Health, Melbourne, VIC, Australia
ac University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia
ad Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India
ae Schools of Public Health and Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA
af Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA
ag St George's University of London, London, UK
ah Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA
ai Independent Consultant, Geneva, Switzerland
aj University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
ak Department of Industrial Engineering, School of Engineering, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogota, Colombia
al Global Partners in Anesthesia and Surgery, New Haven, CT, USA
am Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA
an School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA
ao Boston University, Boston, MA, USA
ap Clinical Trial Service Unit and Epidemiological Studies Unit, Oxford, UK
aq University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
ar Dental Institute, London, UK
as Hospital NHS Trust, London, UK
at Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, UK
au Institute of Dentistry, London, UK
av Queen Mary University of London, London, UK
aw Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry, Research Institute of Transplantology and Artificial Organs, Moscow, Russia
ax King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
ay Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA
az MRC Epidemiology Unit, Cambridge, UK
ba London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
bb Department of Rheumatololgy, Northern Clinical School, Sydney, NSW, Australia
bc Faculty of Health Sciences, Sydney, NSW, Australia
bd Institute of Bone and Joint Research, Sydney, NSW, Australia
be Sydney School of Public Health, Sydney, NSW, Australia
bf University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia
bg Inserm, Paris, France
bh Transport and Road Safety Research, Sydney, NSW, Australia
bi National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, Sydney, NSW, Australia
bj University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia
bk Vision and Eye Research Unit, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK
bl Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Martinique, France
bm Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, UK
bn University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
bo University of Leicester, Leicester, UK
bp Flinders University, Adelaide, SA, Australia
bq Cabrini Institute, Malvern, VIC, Australia
br Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Melbourne, VIC, Australia
bs Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia
bt Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
bu Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA
bv Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA
bw Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, UK
bx Washington University, St Louis, MO, USA
by University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA
bz Telethon Institute for Child Health Research, Centre for Child Health Research, Perth, WA, Australia
ca University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia
cb Universidad Camilo Jose Cela, Villanueva de la Cañada, Spain
cc Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research, Bergamo, Italy
cd National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA
ce Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan
cf Heart Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA
cg Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA
ch Department of Public Health, Rotterdam, Netherlands
ci Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands
cj Menzies School of Health Research, Darwin, NT, Australia
ck National Health Services, Fife, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
cl University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
cm University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
cn Loyola University Medical School, Chicago, IL, USA
co School of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, USA
cp Hospital Dr Gustavo N Collado, Puerto Chitre, Panama
cq Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, Melbourne, VIC, Australia
cr University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA
cs University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA
ct Building and Road Research Institute, Kumasi, Ghana
cu MRC Hearing and Communication Group, Manchester, UK
cv School of Dentistry and Oral Health, Brisbane, QLD, Australia
cw Population and Social Health Research Program, Brisbane, QLD, Australia
cx Griffith University, Brisbane, QLD, Australia
cy Denver VA Medical Center, Denver, CO, USA
cz University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
da Beth Israel Medical Center, New York City, NY, USA
db University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
dc The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
dd Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain
de University of Ulster, Ulster, UK
df Federal Ministry of Health, Khartoum, Sudan
dg Hospital Maciel, Montevideo, Uruguay
dh Emerald Public Health Consulting Services Ltd, Abuja Nigeria
di Digestive Disease Research Center, Tehran, Iran
dj Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
dk National Institute for Stroke and Applied Neurosciences, Auckland, New Zealand
dl Auckland Technical University, Auckland, New Zealand
dm Medical School, São Paulo, Brazil
dn Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
do Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
dp James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, Australia
dq Howard University College of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA
dr Addiction Info Switzerland, Lausanne, Switzerland
ds Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, San Francisco, CA, USA
dt University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA
du College of Medicine, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, USA
dv National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Atlanta, GA, USA
dw Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
dx Université de Lorraine, Nancy, France
dy University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
dz New York University, New York City, NY
ea Brandeis University, Waltham, MA, USA
eb Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, CIBERSAM, Universitat de Barcelona, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Spain
ec Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
ed The Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Adelaide, SA, Australia
ee Université de Franche-Comté, Besançon, France
ef Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire de Besançon, Besançon, France
eg National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, Bethesda, MD, USA
eh National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
ei National School of Tropical Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Waco, TX, USA
ej University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
ek George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA
el Department of Ophthalmology, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Ruprecht Karls University, Heidelberg, Germany
em All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
en Department of Cardiology, Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel
eo Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA
ep School of Public Health, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda
eq University of South Africa, Johannesburg, South Africa
er Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana
es University of Tasmania, Tasmania, TAS, Australia
et Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA
eu Ministry of Health, Jerusalem, Israel
ev Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA
ew Swansea University, Swansea, UK
ex Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda
ey Asian Pacific Society of Cardiology, Kyoto, Japan
ez Medical Research Council, Tygerberg, South Africa
fa Hatter Institute, Cape Town, South Africa
fb Department of Medicine, Cape Town, South Africa
fc University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
fd Legacy Health System, Portland, Oregon
fe Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Evanston, IL, USA
ff National Institute on Psychiatry Ramón de la Fuente, Mexico City, Mexico
fg Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA
fh Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation, Calverton, MD, USA
fi National Institute of Health, Maputo, Mozambique
fj University Eduardo Mondlane, Maputo, Mozambique
fk Duke University, Durham, NC, USA
fl Institute for Maternal and Child Health, IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Trieste, Italy
fm Mailman School of Public Health, New York City, NY, USA
fn Columbia University, New York City, NY, USA
fo Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD, Australia
fp National Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, Japan
fq Watford General Hospital, Watford, UK
fr Kemri-Wellcome Trust, Kilifi, Kenya
fs AVRI, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa
ft Centro Studi GISED, Bergamo, Italy
fu Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany
fv HRB-Clinical Research Facility, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway, Ireland, UK
fw Deakin University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia
fx B P Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal
fy Betty Cowan Research and Innovation Center, Ludhiana, India
fz Hospital Juan XXIII, La Paz, Bolivia
ga University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada
gb Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias, Mexico City, Mexico
gc Hospital Universitario Cruces, Barakaldo, Spain
gd Shanghai Mental Health Center, School of Medicine, Shanghai, China
ge School of Public Health, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China
gf Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, USA
gg Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, Canada
gh Hospital Universitario de Canarias, Tenerif, Spain
gi Faculty of Medicine, School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
gj Vector Control Research Centre, Pondicherry, India
gk Center for Disease Analysis, Louisville, CO, USA
gl University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA
gm NORC, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA
gn Complejo Hospitalario Caja De Seguro Social, Panama City, Panama
go Centre for Alcohol Policy Research, Turning Point Alcohol and Drug Centre, Fitzroy, SA, Australia
gp Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA
gq University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA
gr Ministry of Interior, Madrid, Spain
gs Health Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada
gt Queens Medical Center, Honolulu, HI, USA
gu Department of Neuroscience, Trondheim, Norway
gv Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway
gw Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
gx Drexel University School of Public Health, Philadelphia, PA, USA
gy Alberta Kidney Disease Network, Edmonton, AB, Canada
gz University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada
ha Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati, OH, USA
hb Department of Neurology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, Denmark
hc University of Crete Medical School, Crete, Greece
hd Instituto Nacional de Epidemiología, ANLIS, Malbran, Argentina
he KNCV Tuberculosis Foundation, The Hague, Netherlands
hf Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, Netherlands
hg National University of Singapore, Singapore
hh Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
hi Brown University, Providence, RI, USA
hj Royal Children's Hospital and Critical Care and Neurosciences Theme, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Melbourne, VIC, Australia
hk University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
hl Hollywood Orthopaedic Group, Perth, WA, Australia
hm Arthritis Research, Wichita, KS, USA
hn Royal Cornwall Hospital, Truro, UK
ho London School of Economics, London, UK
hp and Landstuhl Regional Medical Center, Landstuhl, Germany
hq National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
Corresponding Author Information Correspondence to: Prof Christopher J L Murray, Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, 2301 Fifth Avenue, Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121, USA
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Comment GBD 2010: understanding disease, injury, and risk more information Richard Horton. The Lancet 15 December 2012; Volume 380, Issue 9859: Page 2053
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Special Report The story of GBD 2010: a “super-human” effort more information Pamela Das,Udani Samarasekera. The Lancet 15 December 2012; Volume 380, Issue 9859: Page 2067
Articles Age-specific and sex-specific mortality in 187 countries, 1970–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 more information Haidong Wang,Laura Dwyer-Lindgren,Katherine T Lofgren,Julie Knoll Rajaratnam,Jacob R Marcus,Alison Levin-Rector,Carly E Levitz,Alan D Lopez,Christopher JL Murray. The Lancet 15 December 2012; Volume 380, Issue 9859: Page 2071
Articles Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 more information Rafael Lozano,Mohsen Naghavi,Kyle Foreman,Stephen Lim,Kenji Shibuya,Victor Aboyans,Jerry Abraham,Timothy Adair,Rakesh Aggarwal,Stephanie Y Ahn,Miriam Alvarado,H Ross Anderson,Laurie M Anderson,Kathryn G Andrews,Charles Atkinson,Larry M Baddour,Suzanne Barker-Collo,David H Bartels,Michelle L Bell,Emelia J Benjamin,Derrick Bennett,Kavi Bhalla,Boris Bikbov,Aref Bin Abdulhak,Gretchen Birbeck,Fiona Blyth,Ian Bolliger,Soufiane Boufous,Chiara Bucello,Michael Burch,Peter Burney,Jonathan Carapetis,Honglei Chen,David Chou,Sumeet S Chugh,Luc E Coffeng,Steven D Colan,Samantha Colquhoun,K Ellicott Colson,John Condon,Myles D Connor,Leslie T Cooper,Matthew Corriere,Monica Cortinovis,Karen Courville de Vaccaro,William Couser,Benjamin C Cowie,Michael H Criqui,Marita Cross,Kaustubh C Dabhadkar,Nabila Dahodwala,Diego De Leo,Louisa Degenhardt,Allyne Delossantos,Julie Denenberg,Don C Des Jarlais,Samath D Dharmaratne,E Ray Dorsey,Tim Driscoll,Herbert Duber,Beth Ebel,Patricia J Erwin,Patricia Espindola,Majid Ezzati,Valery Feigin,Abraham D Flaxman,Mohammad H Forouzanfar,Francis Gerry R Fowkes,Richard Franklin,Marlene Fransen,Michael K Freeman,Sherine E Gabriel,Emmanuela Gakidou,Flavio Gaspari,Richard F Gillum,Diego Gonzalez-Medina,Yara A Halasa,Diana Haring,James E Harrison,Rasmus Havmoeller,Roderick J Hay,Bruno Hoen,Peter J Hotez,Damian Hoy,Kathryn H Jacobsen,Spencer L James,Rashmi Jasrasaria,Sudha Jayaraman,Nicole Johns,Ganesan Karthikeyan,Nicholas Kassebaum,Andre Keren,Jon-Paul Khoo,Lisa Marie Knowlton,Olive Kobusingye,Adofo Koranteng,Rita Krishnamurthi,Michael Lipnick,Steven E Lipshultz,Summer Lockett Ohno,Jacqueline Mabweijano,Michael F MacIntyre,Leslie Mallinger,Lyn March,Guy B Marks,Robin Marks,Akira Matsumori,Richard Matzopoulos,Bongani M Mayosi,John H McAnulty,Mary M McDermott,John McGrath,George A Mensah,Tony R Merriman,Catherine Michaud,Matthew Miller,Ted R Miller,Charles Mock,Ana Olga Mocumbi,Ali A Mokdad,Andrew Moran,Kim Mulholland,M Nathan Nair,Luigi Naldi,K M Venkat Narayan,Kiumarss Nasseri,Paul Norman,Martin O'Donnell,Saad B Omer,Katrina Ortblad,Richard Osborne,Doruk Ozgediz,Bishnu Pahari,Jeyaraj Durai Pandian,Andrea Panozo Rivero,Rogelio Perez Padilla,Fernando Perez-Ruiz,Norberto Perico,David Phillips,Kelsey Pierce,C Arden Pope,Esteban Porrini,Farshad Pourmalek,Murugesan Raju,Dharani Ranganathan,Jürgen T Rehm,David B Rein,Guiseppe Remuzzi,Frederick P Rivara,Thomas Roberts,Felipe Rodriguez De León,Lisa C Rosenfeld,Lesley Rushton,Ralph L Sacco,Joshua A Salomon,Uchechukwu Sampson,Ella Sanman,David C Schwebel,Maria Segui-Gomez,Donald S Shepard,David Singh,Jessica Singleton,Karen Sliwa,Emma Smith,Andrew Steer,Jennifer A Taylor,Bernadette Thomas,Imad M Tleyjeh,Jeffrey A Towbin,Thomas Truelsen,Eduardo A Undurraga,N Venketasubramanian,Lakshmi Vijayakumar,Theo Vos,Gregory R Wagner,Mengru Wang,Wenzhi Wang,Kerrianne Watt,Martin A Weinstock,Robert Weintraub,James D Wilkinson,Anthony D Woolf,Sarah Wulf,Pon-Hsiu Yeh,Paul Yip,Azadeh Zabetian,Zhi-Jie Zheng,Alan D Lopez,Christopher JL Murray. The Lancet 15 December 2012; Volume 380, Issue 9859: Page 2095
Articles Common values in assessing health outcomes from disease and injury: disability weights measurement study for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 more information Joshua A Salomon,Theo Vos,Daniel R Hogan,Michael Gagnon,Mohsen Naghavi,Ali Mokdad,Nazma Begum,Razibuzzaman Shah,Muhammad Karyana,Soewarta Kosen,Mario Reyna Farje,Gilberto Moncada,Arup Dutta,Sunil Sazawal,Andrew Dyer,Jason Seiler,Victor Aboyans,Lesley Baker,Amanda Baxter,Emelia J Benjamin,Kavi Bhalla,Aref Bin Abdulhak,Fiona Blyth,Rupert Bourne,Tasanee Braithwaite,Peter Brooks,Traolach S Brugha,Claire Bryan-Hancock,Rachelle Buchbinder,Peter Burney,Bianca Calabria,Honglei Chen,Sumeet S Chugh,Rebecca Cooley,Michael H Criqui,Marita Cross,Kaustubh C Dabhadkar,Nabila Dahodwala,Adrian Davis,Louisa Degenhardt,Cesar Díaz-Torné,E Ray Dorsey,Tim Driscoll,Karen Edmond,Alexis Elbaz,Majid Ezzati,Valery Feigin,Cleusa P Ferri,Abraham D Flaxman,Louise Flood,Marlene Fransen,Kana Fuse,Belinda J Gabbe,Richard F Gillum,Juanita Haagsma,James E Harrison,Rasmus Havmoeller,Roderick J Hay,Abdullah Hel-Baqui,Hans W Hoek,Howard Hoffman,Emily Hogeland,Damian Hoy,Deborah Jarvis,Ganesan Karthikeyan,Lisa Marie Knowlton,Tim Lathlean,Janet L Leasher,Stephen S Lim,Steven E Lipshultz,Alan D Lopez,Rafael Lozano,Ronan Lyons,Reza Malekzadeh,Wagner Marcenes,Lyn March,David J Margolis,Neil McGill,John McGrath,George A Mensah,Ana-Claire Meyer,Catherine Michaud,Andrew Moran,Rintaro Mori,Michele E Murdoch,Luigi Naldi,Charles R Newton,Rosana Norman,Saad B Omer,Richard Osborne,Neil Pearce,Fernando Perez-Ruiz,Norberto Perico,Konrad Pesudovs,David Phillips,Farshad Pourmalek,Martin Prince,Jürgen T Rehm,Guiseppe Remuzzi,Kathryn Richardson,Robin Room,Sukanta Saha,Uchechukwu Sampson,Lidia Sanchez-Riera,Maria Segui-Gomez,Saeid Shahraz,Kenji Shibuya,David Singh,Karen Sliwa,Emma Smith,Isabelle Soerjomataram,Timothy Steiner,Wilma A Stolk,Lars Jacob Stovner,Christopher Sudfeld,Hugh R Taylor,Imad M Tleyjeh,Marieke J van der Werf,Wendy L Watson,David J Weatherall,Robert Weintraub,Marc G Weisskopf,Harvey Whiteford,James D Wilkinson,Anthony D Woolf,Zhi-Jie Zheng,Christopher JL Murray. The Lancet 15 December 2012; Volume 380, Issue 9859: Page 2129
Articles Healthy life expectancy for 187 countries, 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden Disease Study 2010 more information Joshua A Salomon,Haidong Wang,Michael K Freeman,Theo Vos,Abraham D Flaxman,Alan D Lopez,Christopher JL Murray. The Lancet 15 December 2012; Volume 380, Issue 9859: Page 2144
Articles Years lived with disability (YLDs) for 1160 sequelae of 289 diseases and injuries 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 more information Theo Vos,Abraham D Flaxman,Mohsen Naghavi,Rafael Lozano,Catherine Michaud,Majid Ezzati,Kenji Shibuya,Joshua A Salomon,Safa Abdalla,Victor Aboyans,Jerry Abraham,Ilana Ackerman,Rakesh Aggarwal,Stephanie Y Ahn,Mohammed K Ali,Miriam Alvarado,H Ross Anderson,Laurie M Anderson,Kathryn G Andrews,Charles Atkinson,Larry M Baddour,Adil N Bahalim,Suzanne Barker-Collo,Lope H Barrero,David H Bartels,Maria-Gloria Basáñez,Amanda Baxter,Michelle L Bell,Emelia J Benjamin,Derrick Bennett,Eduardo Bernabé,Kavi Bhalla,Bishal Bhandari,Boris Bikbov,Aref Bin Abdulhak,Gretchen Birbeck,James A Black,Hannah Blencowe,Jed D Blore,Fiona Blyth,Ian Bolliger,Audrey Bonaventure,Soufiane Boufous,Rupert Bourne,Michel Boussinesq,Tasanee Braithwaite,Carol Brayne,Lisa Bridgett,Simon Brooker,Peter Brooks,Traolach S Brugha,Claire Bryan-Hancock,Chiara Bucello,Rachelle Buchbinder,Geoffrey Buckle,Christine M Budke,Michael Burch,Peter Burney,Roy Burstein,Bianca Calabria,Benjamin Campbell,Charles E Canter,Hélène Carabin,Jonathan Carapetis,Loreto Carmona,Claudia Cella,Fiona Charlson,Honglei Chen,Andrew Tai-Ann Cheng,David Chou,Sumeet S Chugh,Luc E Coffeng,Steven D Colan,Samantha Colquhoun,K Ellicott Colson,John Condon,Myles D Connor,Leslie T Cooper,Matthew Corriere,Monica Cortinovis,Karen Courville de Vaccaro,William Couser,Benjamin C Cowie,Michael H Criqui,Marita Cross,Kaustubh C Dabhadkar,Manu Dahiya,Nabila Dahodwala,James Damsere-Derry,Goodarz Danaei,Adrian Davis,Diego De Leo,Louisa Degenhardt,Robert Dellavalle,Allyne Delossantos,Julie Denenberg,Sarah Derrett,Don C Des Jarlais,Samath D Dharmaratne,Mukesh Dherani,Cesar Diaz-Torne,Helen Dolk,E Ray Dorsey,Tim Driscoll,Herbert Duber,Beth Ebel,Karen Edmond,Alexis Elbaz,Suad Eltahir Ali,Holly Erskine,Patricia J Erwin,Patricia Espindola,Stalin E Ewoigbokhan,Farshad Farzadfar,Valery Feigin,David T Felson,Alize Ferrari,Cleusa P Ferri,Eric M Fèvre,Mariel M Finucane,Seth Flaxman,Louise Flood,Kyle Foreman,Mohammad H Forouzanfar,Francis Gerry R Fowkes,Richard Franklin,Marlene Fransen,Michael K Freeman,Belinda J Gabbe,Sherine E Gabriel,Emmanuela Gakidou,Hammad A Ganatra,Bianca Garcia,Flavio Gaspari,Richard F Gillum,Gerhard Gmel,Richard Gosselin,Rebecca Grainger,Justina Groeger,Francis Guillemin,David Gunnell,Ramyani Gupta,Juanita Haagsma,Holly Hagan,Yara A Halasa,Wayne Hall,Diana Haring,Josep Maria Haro,James E Harrison,Rasmus Havmoeller,Roderick J Hay,Hideki Higashi,Catherine Hill,Bruno Hoen,Howard Hoffman,Peter J Hotez,Damian Hoy,John J Huang,Sydney E Ibeanusi,Kathryn H Jacobsen,Spencer L James,Deborah Jarvis,Rashmi Jasrasaria,Sudha Jayaraman,Nicole Johns,Jost B Jonas,Ganesan Karthikeyan,Nicholas Kassebaum,Norito Kawakami,Andre Keren,Jon-Paul Khoo,Charles H King,Lisa Marie Knowlton,Olive Kobusingye,Adofo Koranteng,Rita Krishnamurthi,Ratilal Lalloo,Laura L Laslett,Tim Lathlean,Janet L Leasher,Yong Yi Lee,James Leigh,Stephen S Lim,Elizabeth Limb,John Kent Lin,Michael Lipnick,Steven E Lipshultz,Wei Liu,Maria Loane,Summer Lockett Ohno,Ronan Lyons,Jixiang Ma,Jacqueline Mabweijano,Michael F MacIntyre,Reza Malekzadeh,Leslie Mallinger,Sivabalan Manivannan,Wagner Marcenes,Lyn March,David J Margolis,Guy B Marks,Robin Marks,Akira Matsumori,Richard Matzopoulos,Bongani M Mayosi,John H McAnulty,Mary M McDermott,Neil McGill,John McGrath,Maria Elena Medina-Mora,Michele Meltzer,George A Mensah,Tony R Merriman,Ana-Claire Meyer,Valeria Miglioli,Matthew Miller,Ted R Miller,Philip B Mitchell,Ana Olga Mocumbi,Terrie E Moffitt,Ali A Mokdad,Lorenzo Monasta,Marcella Montico,Maziar Moradi-Lakeh,Andrew Moran,Lidia Morawska,Rintaro Mori,Michele E Murdoch,Michael K Mwaniki,Kovin Naidoo,M Nathan Nair,Luigi Naldi,KM Venkat Narayan,Paul K Nelson,Robert G Nelson,Michael C Nevitt,Charles R Newton,Sandra Nolte,Paul Norman,Rosana Norman,Martin O'Donnell,Simon O'Hanlon,Casey Olives,Saad B Omer,Katrina Ortblad,Richard Osborne,Doruk Ozgediz,Andrew Page,Bishnu Pahari,Jeyaraj Durai Pandian,Andrea Panozo Rivero,Scott B Patten,Neil Pearce,Rogelio Perez Padilla,Fernando Perez-Ruiz,Norberto Perico,Konrad Pesudovs,David Phillips,Michael R Phillips,Kelsey Pierce,Sébastien Pion,Guilherme V Polanczyk,Suzanne Polinder,C Arden Pope,Svetlana Popova,Esteban Porrini,Farshad Pourmalek,Martin Prince,Rachel L Pullan,Kapa D Ramaiah,Dharani Ranganathan,Homie Razavi,Mathilda Regan,Jürgen T Rehm,David B Rein,Guiseppe Remuzzi,Kathryn Richardson,Frederick P Rivara,Thomas Roberts,Carolyn Robinson,Felipe Rodriguez De Leòn,Luca Ronfani,Robin Room,Lisa C Rosenfeld,Lesley Rushton,Ralph L Sacco,Sukanta Saha,Uchechukwu Sampson,Lidia Sanchez-Riera,Ella Sanman,David C Schwebel,James Graham Scott,Maria Segui-Gomez,Saeid Shahraz,Donald S Shepard,Hwashin Shin,Rupak Shivakoti,David Singh,Gitanjali M Singh,Jasvinder A Singh,Jessica Singleton,David A Sleet,Karen Sliwa,Emma Smith,Jennifer L Smith,Nicolas JC Stapelberg,Andrew Steer,Timothy Steiner,Wilma A Stolk,Lars Jacob Stovner,Christopher Sudfeld,Sana Syed,Giorgio Tamburlini,Mohammad Tavakkoli,Hugh R Taylor,Jennifer A Taylor,William J Taylor,Bernadette Thomas,W Murray Thomson,George D Thurston,Imad M Tleyjeh,Marcello Tonelli,Jeffrey A Towbin,Thomas Truelsen,Miltiadis K Tsilimbaris,Clotilde Ubeda,Eduardo A Undurraga,Marieke J van der Werf,Jim van Os,Monica S Vavilala,N Venketasubramanian,Mengru Wang,Wenzhi Wang,Kerrianne Watt,David J Weatherall,Martin A Weinstock,Robert Weintraub,Marc G Weisskopf,Myrna M Weissman,Richard A White,Harvey Whiteford,Steven T Wiersma,James D Wilkinson,Hywel C Williams,Sean RM Williams,Emma Witt,Frederick Wolfe,Anthony D Woolf,Sarah Wulf,Pon-Hsiu Yeh,Anita KM Zaidi,Zhi-Jie Zheng,David Zonies,Alan D Lopez,Christopher JL Murray. The Lancet 15 December 2012; Volume 380, Issue 9859: Page 2163
Articles A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 more information Stephen S Lim,Theo Vos,Abraham D Flaxman,Goodarz Danaei,Kenji Shibuya,Heather Adair-Rohani,Markus Amann,H Ross Anderson,Kathryn G Andrews,Martin Aryee,Charles Atkinson,Loraine J Bacchus,Adil N Bahalim,Kalpana Balakrishnan,John Balmes,Suzanne Barker-Collo,Amanda Baxter,Michelle L Bell,Jed D Blore,Fiona Blyth,Carissa Bonner,Guilherme Borges,Rupert Bourne,Michel Boussinesq,Michael Brauer,Peter Brooks,Nigel G Bruce,Bert Brunekreef,Claire Bryan-Hancock,Chiara Bucello,Rachelle Buchbinder,Fiona Bull,Richard T Burnett,Tim E Byers,Bianca Calabria,Jonathan Carapetis,Emily Carnahan,Zoe Chafe,Fiona Charlson,Honglei Chen,Jian Shen Chen,Andrew Tai-Ann Cheng,Jennifer Christine Child,Aaron Cohen,K Ellicott Colson,Benjamin C Cowie,Sarah Darby,Susan Darling,Adrian Davis,Louisa Degenhardt,Frank Dentener,Don C Des Jarlais,Karen Devries,Mukesh Dherani,Eric L Ding,E Ray Dorsey,Tim Driscoll,Karen Edmond,Suad Eltahir Ali,Rebecca E Engell,Patricia J Erwin,Saman Fahimi,Gail Falder,Farshad Farzadfar,Alize Ferrari,Mariel M Finucane,Seth Flaxman,Francis Gerry R Fowkes,Greg Freedman,Michael K Freeman,Emmanuela Gakidou,Santu Ghosh,Edward Giovannucci,Gerhard Gmel,Kathryn Graham,Rebecca Grainger,Bridget Grant,David Gunnell,Hialy R Gutierrez,Wayne Hall,Hans W Hoek,Anthony Hogan,H Dean Hosgood,Damian Hoy,Howard Hu,Bryan J Hubbell,Sally J Hutchings,Sydney E Ibeanusi,Gemma L Jacklyn,Rashmi Jasrasaria,Jost B Jonas,Haidong Kan,John A Kanis,Nicholas Kassebaum,Norito Kawakami,Young-Ho Khang,Shahab Khatibzadeh,Jon-Paul Khoo,Cindy Kok,Francine Laden,Ratilal Lalloo,Qing Lan,Tim Lathlean,Janet L Leasher,James Leigh,Yang Li,John Kent Lin,Steven E Lipshultz,Stephanie London,Rafael Lozano,Yuan Lu,Joelle Mak,Reza Malekzadeh,Leslie Mallinger,Wagner Marcenes,Lyn March,Robin Marks,Randall Martin,Paul McGale,John McGrath,Sumi Mehta,George A Mensah,Tony R Merriman,Renata Micha,Catherine Michaud,Vinod Mishra,Khayriyyah Mohd Hanafiah,Ali A Mokdad,Lidia Morawska,Dariush Mozaffarian,Tasha Murphy,Mohsen Naghavi,Bruce Neal,Paul K Nelson,Joan Miquel Nolla,Rosana Norman,Casey Olives,Saad B Omer,Jessica Orchard,Richard Osborne,Bart Ostro,Andrew Page,Kiran D Pandey,Charles DH Parry,Erin Passmore,Jayadeep Patra,Neil Pearce,Pamela M Pelizzari,Max Petzold,Michael R Phillips,Dan Pope,C Arden Pope,John Powles,Mayuree Rao,Homie Razavi,Eva A Rehfuess,Jürgen T Rehm,Beate Ritz,Frederick P Rivara,Thomas Roberts,Carolyn Robinson,Jose A Rodriguez-Portales,Isabelle Romieu,Robin Room,Lisa C Rosenfeld,Ananya Roy,Lesley Rushton,Joshua A Salomon,Uchechukwu Sampson,Lidia Sanchez-Riera,Ella Sanman,Amir Sapkota,Soraya Seedat,Peilin Shi,Kevin Shield,Rupak Shivakoti,Gitanjali M Singh,David A Sleet,Emma Smith,Kirk R Smith,Nicolas JC Stapelberg,Kyle Steenland,Heidi Stöckl,Lars Jacob Stovner,Kurt Straif,Lahn Straney,George D Thurston,Jimmy H Tran,Rita Van Dingenen,Aaron van Donkelaar,J Lennert Veerman,Lakshmi Vijayakumar,Robert Weintraub,Myrna M Weissman,Richard A White,Harvey Whiteford,Steven T Wiersma,James D Wilkinson,Hywel C Williams,Warwick Williams,Nicholas Wilson,Anthony D Woolf,Paul Yip,Jan M Zielinski,Alan D Lopez,Christopher JL Murray,Majid Ezzati. The Lancet 15 December 2012; Volume 380, Issue 9859: Page 2224
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