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Upper limb kinematic differences between breathing & non-breathing conditions in front-crawl sprint swimming

McCabe, Carla, Psycharakis, Stelios and Sanders, Ross (2014) Upper limb kinematic differences between breathing & non-breathing conditions in front-crawl sprint swimming. In: XIIth International Symposium on Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Australian Institute of Sport, Canberra, Australia. Australian Institute of Sport, Canberra. 1 pp. [Conference contribution]

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IntroductionDue to conflicting evidence (Payton et al., 1999; Vezos et al., 2007), the purpose of this study was to determine whether the breathing action in front crawl (FC) sprint swimming affects upper limb kinematics relative to a non-breathing stroke cycle (SC). MethodTen male competitive swimmers performed two 25m FC sprints: one breathing to their preferred side (Br) and one not breathing (NBr). Both swim trials were performed through a 6.75m3 calibrated space and recorded by six gen-locked JVC KY32 CCD cameras. The calculated variables were: average swim velocity, stroke length, stroke frequency, vertical and lateral hand displacement, elbow angle magnitudes, stroke phase durations and the horizontal and vertical hand acceleration. A paired t-test was used to assess statistical differences between the trials, with a confidence level of p<0.05 accepted as significant.ResultRelative to NBr, it was found that Br resulted in a significant decrease of the following: average swim velocity (3%; p=0.02), maximum hand depth (6%; p=0.04), push phase duration (16%; p=0.02), elbow angle magnitude at the end back position (7%; p=0.01), range of elbow angle magnitude within the push phase (31%; p=0.01) and a reduced vertical hand acceleration within the pull phase (30%; p=0.04). It was also found relative to NBr that Br significantly increased the average lateral hand displacement within the push phase (24%; p = 0.01), pull phase duration (14%; p=0.02) and a faster vertical hand acceleration within the push phase (33%; p=0.03).ConclusionsSwim performance is compromised in terms of time and influence on kinematic variables by the inclusion of taking a breath in sprint FC swimming. Greater maximum hand depth and elbow range of motion during the NBr trial may have contributed to the faster swim performance compared to the Br trial. Kinetic analysis is required to establish whether temporal changes in stroke phase durations and the accelerative actions of the hands affected the propulsive output between the two conditions. It is recommended that sprinters limit the number of breaths taken without physiological compromise. ReferencesPayton, C.J. et al. (1999). Journal of Sport Sciences, 17, 689-695.Vezos, N. et al. (2007). Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 6, 58-62.

Item Type:Conference contribution (Speech)
Faculties and Schools:Faculty of Life and Health Sciences > School of Sport
Faculty of Life and Health Sciences
ID Code:29581
Deposited By: Dr Carla McCabe
Deposited On:06 Jun 2014 11:54
Last Modified:06 Jun 2014 11:54

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