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Occurrence and daily variability of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in swimming pools

Teo, Tiffany L. L., Coleman, Heather M. and Khan, Stuart J. (2016) Occurrence and daily variability of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in swimming pools. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 23 (7). pp. 6972-6981. [Journal article]

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URL: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11356-015-5967-4

DOI: 10.1007/s11356-015-5967-4

Abstract

The aim of this research was to investigate the presence and daily variability of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in public swimming pools. Various types of public swimming pool water were analysed, taken from freshwater indoor swimming pools, outdoor swimming pools, spa pools and seawater swimming pools. Swimming pool water samples were analysed for 30 PPCPs using solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). All PPCPs were below quantification limits in seawater pools. However, caffeine was detected in 12 chlorinated swimming pools at concentrations up to 1540 ng/L and ibuprofen was observed in 7 chlorinated pools at concentrations up to 83 ng/L. Caffeine and ibuprofen concentrations were below quantification limits in all fill water samples, eliminating this as their source in swimming pools. High variations in caffeine concentrations monitored throughout the day roughly reflect bather loads in swimming pools. Future monitoring of these compounds may assist in evaluating what portion of organic matter measured in swimming pools may come from human excretions.

Item Type:Journal article
Keywords:Anthropogenic, Ibuprofen, Caffeine, Chemical contaminants, Surrogate indicators
Faculties and Schools:Faculty of Computing & Engineering
Faculty of Computing & Engineering > School of Engineering
Research Institutes and Groups:Engineering Research Institute
Engineering Research Institute > Nanotechnology & Integrated BioEngineering Centre (NIBEC)
ID Code:34815
Deposited By: Dr Heather Coleman
Deposited On:15 Jun 2016 09:30
Last Modified:01 Mar 2017 11:49

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