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Presence and select determinants of organophosphate flame retardants in public swimming pools

Teo, Tiffany L.L., Coleman, Heather and Khan, Stuart J. (2016) Presence and select determinants of organophosphate flame retardants in public swimming pools. Science of The Total Environment, 569-70 . pp. 469-475. [Journal article]

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URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.06.085

DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.06.085


The occurrence of five organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) consisting of tributyl phosphate (TNBP), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP), tris(1.3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) in swimming pools were investigated. Fifteen chlorinated public swimming pools were sampled, including indoor pools, outdoor pools and spa pools. The analyses were carried out using isotope dilution gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. All five PFRs were detected in swimming pool waters with concentrations ranging from 5–27 ng/L (TNBP), 7–293 ng/L (TCEP), 62–1180 ng/L (TCIPP), 10–670 ng/L (TDCIPP) and 8–132 ng/L (TPHP). The concentrations of PFRs were generally higher in indoor swimming pools compared to outdoor swimming pools. In municipal water supplies, used to fill the swimming pools in three of the sampling locations, the five PFRs were all below the limit of quantifications, eliminating this as the source. Potential leaching of PFRs from commonly used swimming equipment, including newly purchased kickboards and swimsuits was investigated. These experiments revealed that PFRs leached from swimsuits, and may be a source of PFRs in swimming pools. A quantitative risk assessment revealed that the health risk to PFRs via swimming pools was generally low and below commonly applied health risk benchmarks.

Item Type:Journal article
Keywords:Leaching; Chemical contaminants; Swimsuits; Kickboards; Human exposure; Health risk assessment
Faculties and Schools:Faculty of Computing & Engineering
Faculty of Computing & Engineering > School of Engineering
Research Institutes and Groups:Engineering Research Institute
Engineering Research Institute > Nanotechnology & Integrated BioEngineering Centre (NIBEC)
ID Code:35723
Deposited By: Dr Heather Coleman
Deposited On:08 Sep 2016 08:26
Last Modified:08 Sep 2017 13:50

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