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Human Factors Analysis of the CardioQuick Patch ®: A Novel Engineering Solution to the Problem of Electrode Misplacement during 12-lead Electrocardiogram Acquisition

Bond, Raymond R., Finlay, Dewar, McLaughlin, James, Guldenring, Daniel, Cairns, Andrew, Kennedy, Alan, Deans, Robert, Waldo, Albert and Peace, Aaron (2016) Human Factors Analysis of the CardioQuick Patch ®: A Novel Engineering Solution to the Problem of Electrode Misplacement during 12-lead Electrocardiogram Acquisition. Journal of Electrocardiology, 49 (6). pp. 911-918. [Journal article]

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URL: http://www.jecgonline.com/article/S0022-0736(16)30168-6/abstract

DOI: 10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2016.08.009


IntroductionThe CardioQuick Patch ® (CQP) has been developed to assist operators in accurately positioning precordial electrodes during 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) acquisition. This study describes the CQP design and assesses the device in comparison to conventional electrode application.Methods20 ECG technicians were recruited and a total of 60 ECG acquisitions were performed on the same patient model over four phases: (1) all participants applied single electrodes to the patient; (2) all participants were then re-trained on electrode placement and on how to use the CQP; (3) participants were randomly divided into two groups, the standard group applied single electrodes and the CQP group used the CQP; (4) after a one day interval, the same participants returned to carry out the same procedure on the same patient (measuring intra-practitioner variability). Accuracy was measured with reference to pre-marked correct locations using ultra violet ink. NASA-TLK was used to measure cognitive workload and the Systematic Usability Scale (SUS) was used to quantify the usability of the CQP.ResultsThere was a large difference between the minimum time taken to complete each approach (CQP = 38.58 s vs. 65.96 s). The standard group exhibited significant levels of electrode placement error (V1 = 25.35 mm ± 29.33, V2 = 18.1 mm ± 24.49, V3 = 38.65 mm ± 15.57, V4 = 37.73 mm ± 12.14, V5 = 35.75 mm ± 15.61, V6 = 44.15 mm ± 14.32). The CQP group had statistically greater accuracy when placing five of the six electrodes (V1 = 6.68 mm ± 8.53 [p < 0.001], V2 = 8.8 mm ± 9.64 [p = 0.122], V3 = 6.83 mm ± 8.99 [p < 0.001], V4 = 14.90 mm ± 11.76 [p < 0.001], V5 = 8.63 mm ± 10.70 [p < 0.001], V6 = 18.13 mm ± 14.37 [p < 0.001]). There was less intra-practitioner variability when using the CQP on the same patient model. NASA TLX revealed that the CQP did increase the cognitive workload (CQP Group = 16.51% ± 8.11 vs. 12.22% ± 8.07 [p = 0.251]). The CQP also achieved a high SUS score of 91 ± 7.28.ConclusionThe CQP significantly improved the reproducibility and accuracy of placing precordial electrodes V1, V3-V6 with little additional cognitive effort, and with a high degree of usability.

Item Type:Journal article
Keywords:ECG, Electrodes, Medical Device, Usability, Human Factors
Faculties and Schools:Faculty of Computing & Engineering
Faculty of Computing & Engineering > School of Computing and Mathematics
Faculty of Computing & Engineering > School of Engineering
Research Institutes and Groups:Engineering Research Institute
Engineering Research Institute > Nanotechnology & Integrated BioEngineering Centre (NIBEC)
Computer Science Research Institute > Smart Environments
Computer Science Research Institute
ID Code:35817
Deposited By: Dr Raymond Bond
Deposited On:04 Oct 2016 15:42
Last Modified:08 Jun 2017 09:20

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